Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Moccasins and Shoe packs

"Their Shoes,when they wear any are made of an entire piece of Buck-Skin;except when they sow a piece to the bottom, to thicken the Soal. They are fasten'd on with running Strings ,the Skin being drawn together like a Purse on top of the Foot,and tyed round the Ankle. The Indian name of this kind of Shoe is Moccasin"

"The History and Present State of Virginia,in Four Parts:
By Robert Beverly, 1705, Pages 163-164

Two views from here and here of the Ligonier moccasin with a reproduction 

Beverly's description includes the use of an applied sole, something many descriptions and extant 18th century moccasins lack. The dug moccasin from Fort Ligonier (illustrated in Sketchbook '76 and shown above) has that feature, although many argue this is a working life repair. Evidence exists that such repairs were being done in the period.  Intrepid researcher Steve Rayner recently uncovered and shared the following:

17th [February 1766] I got a pair of Mogoseens that David Moor mended for me he soled and heel tapd them and I found the thread he charged 11s/Bay old Tenr. 

p 165 (Diary of Matthew Patten of Bedford, NH from 1754-1788, Rumford Printing company, Concord, NH 1903).

In addition, a March 19th, 1776 dated account (courtesy Nathan Barlow) lists the following line item among other footwear repairs.

To Soleing one pair of Mongesons & mending Shoes -/2/6

Although the expenses are listed for "Captain Jonathan Clark", the inclusion of the name John Hoy points this towards being Clark's company of the 8th Virginia Regiment as both men's names are mentioned in this 8th Virginia pension application and this muster roll.

 "Shoe packs" or "shoepacks" seem to have been an Anglo adaptation of Native Moccasins.

19th century writer Rev. James B. Finley defined them as "shoe-packs, or a kind of half shoe and half moccasin.",%20or%20a%20kind%20of%20half%20shoe%20and%20half%20moccasin.%E2%80%9D&f=false

Joseph Doddridge on shoe packs:

"Almost every family contained its own tailors and shoemakers. Those who could not make shoes, could make shoepacks. Those, like mocassons, were made of a single piece of leather with the exception of a tongue piece on the top of the foot. This was about two inches broad and circular at the lower end. To this the main piece of leather was sewed, with a gathering stitch. The seam behind was like that of a moccason . To the shoepack a sole was sometimes added."

June 23, 1768
The Pennsylvania Gazette Augusta County, in Virginia, June 6, 1768.
RUN away from the Subscriber, living near Stanton, the first Day of May last, a Convict Servant Man, named Michael Ferral, about 28 Years of Age, of a fair Complexion, has pale curled Hair, is about 5 Feet 9 or 10 Inches high, thick lipped, round shouldered, and small legged; He had on, and took with him when he went away, a brown Coat, and Jacket, bound round with Worsted Ferriting, Buckskin Breeches, and a Fur Hat, all about half worn, two Pair of Worsted Stockings, one Pair black, the other blue, and a Pair of Shoe packs on his Feet. Said Servant pretends to be a Doctor, and a Weaver; he has with him a Bank Note, upon the Bank in London…

October 22, 1778 The Pennsylvania Packet

RAN AWAY from Mossy Creek Iron Works, Augusta county, Virginia, on the 30th of September last, an English convict servant man named THOMAS ORTON, about thirty years of age, near six feet high, slender made, marked with the smallpox, speaks thick and a little through the nose, has a down look, and in common very dirty; had on when he went away, a tow shirt and trowsers, a short jacket made without skirts, of light colour, lined with linen, a straw hat looped with blue wool, a
pair of shoe packs, and is supposed to have a pass of good hand writing. Whoever taken up the said servant, and either brings him home or secures him in any gaol so that his master may get him again, shall have the above Reward and reasonable charges, paid by HENRY MILLER.

Although not a great choice in wet weather (save those pennies for an additional pair of handmade 18thc European style shoes!), Moccasins or shoe packs were at times worn on the frontier out of necessity for lack of European style shoes:

Doctor Thomas Walker's Journal
(6 Mar 1749/50 - 13 Jul 1750)

April 16th. Rai(n). I made a pair of Indian Shoes, those I brought out being bad.

May 10th. We staid on the River and dressed an Elk skin to make Indian Shoes--ours being quite worn out.

11th. We left the River, found the Mountains very bad, and got to a Rock by the side of a Creek Sufficient to shelter 200 men from Rain. Finding it so convenient, we concluded to stay and put our Elk skin in order for shoes and make them.

14th. When our Elk's skin was prepared we had lost every awl that we brought out, and I made one with the shank of an old Fishing hook, the other People made two of Horse Shoe Nails, and with these we made our Shoes or Moccosons.

July 7. We kept up the Creek, and about Noon 5 men overtook us and inform'd that we were only 8 miles from the inhabitants on a Branch of James River called Jackson's River. We exchanged some Tallow for Metal and Parted. We camped on a Creek nigh the Top of the Alleghaney Ridge, which we named Ragged Creek.

8th. Having Shaved, Shifted and made New shoes we left our useless raggs at ye camp and got to Walker Johnston's about Noon. We moved over to Robert Armstrong's and staid there all night. The People here are very Hospitable and would be better able to support Travellers was it not for the great number of Indian Warriers that frequently take what they want from them, much to their prejudice.

Pension Application of Philip Harless: R4613

Boutetourt, VA
That in the spring of 1779 he volunteered under the command of Captain John Lucas
[pension application W5468] and served from the 1st of April untill the first of October That he took the Oath of fidelity as an Indian Spy to be engaged against the Indians and was stationed in a garrison situated on Sinking Creek a tributary stream of New river in that part of Bottetourt County that is now Giles…….. That he recollects of a party of Indians commiting murder on some of the Inhabitants and that a part of the men from the garrison where he was stationed persued after the Indians to rescue a prisoner and persued on untill some of them become bear footed and was compelled to make Mocquinsans out of raw Deerskins
Sometimes moccasins may have been used for concealment of the wearer's identity:

Adam Stephen to George Washington, September 27, 1755, Report on Fort Cumberland, Maryland

FT CUMBERLAND Sept 27th. 1755

A party of Volunteers were ordered out, under command of Capt. Savage to reconnoitre the Bottom of Will's Creek. They Rous'd three Indians and fired at them but Soon lost Sight of them. We Continue Alert, and want men much. The Indians discover our Parties by the Track of their Shoes. It would be a good thing to have Shoe-packs or Moccosons for the Scouts. --

Cresswell had them made for him:

The journal of Nicholas Cresswell, 1774--1777

Saturday, August 19th, 1775. Waiting for Mr. Anderson. Employed an Indian Woman to make me a pair of Mockeysons and Leggings.

Tuesday, September 5th, 1775. At Kanaughtonhead.
Went to the meeting where Divine service was performed in Dutch and English with great solemnity. This Chapel is much neater than that at Wale-hack-tap-poke. Adorned with basket work in various colours all round, with a spinet made by Mr. Smith the parson, and played by an Indian. Drank Tea with Captn. White-Eyes and Captn. Wingenund at an Indian house in Town. This Tea is made of the tops of Ginsing, and I think it very much like Bohea Tea. The leaves are put into a tin canister made water tight and boiled till it is dry, by this means the juices do not evaporate. N. did not choose to go into the town, but employed herself in making me a pair of Mockesons.

Fort Pitt--Thursday, September 14th, 1775. Got to Fort Pitt about noon. Left our Girls amongst the Indians that are coming to the Treaty. Great numbers of people in Town come to the Treaty. Terrible news from the Northward, but so confused I hoped there is little truth in it. Friday, September 15th, 1775. Very few of the Indians come in yet, the commissioners have been waiting for them a week. Shall be obliged to stay here some time to see the Treaty. Saturday, September 36th, 1775. Got acquainted with Mr. Ephraim Douglas, an Indian trader. Found him sensible and an agreeable companion. N. finished my Leggings and Mockeysons, very neat ones.

Virginia Gazette(Purdie), Williamsburg ,September 20, 1776.

RUN away from the subscriber in Alexandria, the 12th of August last, ANDREW KELLY, an Irish servant man about 5 feet 8 inches high, by trade a brick-maker, of a fair complexion, has short brown hair, very talkative when in liquor, which he is fond of, and is inclined to be fat; had on, when he went away, short brown cloth coat and waistcoat, old brown linen shirt and trousers, and buckskin mockasons. Possibly he may offer to enlist in the land or sea service, or attempt again to go to the British troops. Whoever secures him in any jail, so as I get him again, shall have SIX DOLLARS reward.JAMES PARSONS.


DESERTED from my company of continental regulars raised in Washington county, Virginia , the following soldiers, viz. Thomas Price , of a fair complexion, about 5 feet 10 inches high, had on when he went away a striped cotton fly coat and waistcoat, linen drawers and leggings; he was born in South Carolina , on the waters of Broad river. John Chambers , born in England , has lost one of his great toes, and has a large scar on the back of his neck, occasioned by the wound of a ball; he is about 5 feet 9 inches high, and had on when he went away a white hunting shirt and leather leggings and mockasons. ... Whoever secures the above deserters, so as I may have them again, or delivers them to any of the officers of col. Charles Lewis 's battalion, shall have the above reward, or five pounds for each.

Another possibility is “The Virginia moccasin is made of one piece of skin gathered by means of a seam along the upper side of the foot and another along the heel. A part of the skin formed a loose flap on each side, reaching a few inches up on the leg and fastened around the ankle by means of strings, or the moccasin was drawn together like a purse around the ankle. [1] ...”

[1] “W. R. Gerard, ‘Virginia Indian Contributions to English.’ /American Anthropologist/ (N. S.) vol. 9, p. 97.” p. 153.

My first attempt at Moccasin making (based on the Sketchbook '76 drawing) went very poorly. I hope to give it a whirl again later and will post the results if I have a better time of it than my first trial. Further discussion from more successful folks on making moccasins can be found here:

A really good online tutorial can be found here:

A pattern here:

And an instructional DVD:

Tuesday, May 10, 2011

Dutch blankets

Dock Scene by Abraham Jansz Begeyn ca. 1662

"But to return to our subject: no time was lost; we struck whilst the iron was hot, fixed Mr. Cocke off with a good Queen Ann's musket, plenty of ammunition, a tomahawk, a large cuttoe knife, a Dutch blanket, and no small quantity of jerked beef. Thus equipped, and mounted on a tolerably good horse, on the ___ day of April, Mr. Cocke started from Cumberland river, about 130 miles from this place, and carried with him, besides his own enormous load of fearful apprehensions, a considerable burden of my own uneasiness.

Letter of Judge Henderson to Proprietors remaining in North Carolina
Boonsborough June 12, 1775

Dutch blankets appear in great quantities in 18th century documents from Virginia. They were used by Soldiers (the most common type of blanket specified in the accounts from the Va Public Store for Va Continental use), Indians, Slaves and civilians alike and seem to have been VERY common.

Pennsylvania Packet, 13 May 1778

DESERTED from Capt. Nathaniel Fox's company of the 6th Virginia,
James Anderson, a black soldier, six feet high, about forty years of age, rather spare made, and fond of liquor; had on when he went away, a light grey cloth coat and waistcoat: the coat faced with green, a pair of oznabrig overalls, and a small round hat with a piece of bear-skin on it: He took with him a pair of leather breeches which he had to clean, and also his firelock, cartridge-box, and new Dutch blanket. He is a ditcher by trade, and it is probable will endeavor to get employment in this State. Whoever apprehends said deserter and delivers him to some officer of the regiment, or secures him so that he may be brought to his regiment again, shall receive TWENTY DOLLARS reward.
John Gibson, Col. 6th Virginia Reg.

Governor Dinwiddie to Colonel George Washington.
“June 24th, 1757...
Col. Stephen is highly blameable to take any of the Regimental supplies for the Indians... If any of the Dutch Blankets rem’n, and not wanted for the Indians, I’ve no objection to their being replaced in the room of those made use of.” p. 654.

Virginia Gazette
(Purdie & Co.), Williamsburg ,
May 2, 1766.

RUN away from the subscriber, the 16th of February last, two Virginia born Negro men slaves, of a yellow complexion, about 5 feet 8 or 9 inches high; had on when they went away Negro cotton waistcoat and breeches, shoes and stockings, and osnabrugs shirt, and took with them several other clothes, and five Dutch Blankets. One named CHARLES, is a sawyer and shoemaker by trade, carried with him a set of shoemaker tools, is about 28 years of age, speaks slow, can read, and may probably procure a pass and get on board some vessel. The other named GEORGE, about the same age, is round shouldered, which causes him to stoop when he walks; they are both outlawed. Whoever brings, or safely conveys, the said slaves to me, in the upper end of Charles City county, shall have 5 l. reward for each, if taken in this colony, if out thereof 10 l.

“27. Clough Overton. May 20, 1783. Dutch blanket, £3:9:0; 1 pr billiard balls, 5:10; Otter skin 6:0; shoe buckles, knee buckles, a cabin in Harrodsburg, etc., £103:10:10.” p. 133.

“Records of Lincoln County (Concluded).” In “The Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society, Frankfort, Kentucky.” Vol. 12, No. 34. The State Journal Company, Frankfort, Kentucky, 1914.

Appearance and Origin

So- what did these "Dutch" blankets look like and where did they come from? Aside from knowing that they must have likely been quite visually distinct from French point, English duffel and English "rose" blankets, there is a dearth of information in the second and third quarters of the eighteenth century, but we do have a few hints:

Invoice of Sundries to be sent by Robert Cary and Company for the use of George Washington:

"...100 yards Dutch Blankets."
June 1776  Dr. Nicholas Flood probate inventory Richmond County, Va
 16 Dutch Blankets 1 ps. 8£.15 do do in anor 7£10s 15.10. 0

[William Lee] to Richard Henry Lee.
“Paris, 12 September, 1778.
My dear Brother:...
I have sent from Holland 2,000 Dutch blankets and 3,000 pr woolen stockings, on acct of the Secret Committee.” p. 480.

Hd. Qrs., Newburgh, May 15, 1783.
The Blankets which I used to Import for my Negros came under the description of Dutch Blankets, abt. 15 in a piece, striped large and of the best quality, such I now want. In case of a purchase, I would have them sent to my House upon Potomack River consigned to Mr. Lund Washington at Mr. Vernon abt. 10 Miles below Alexa. 

Thomas Jefferson refers to them several times,  equating them with striped blankets in 1787, and mentioning width in 1788:

"As I could find a use here for 3. or 4. striped blankets (sometimes called Dutch blankets)"
Papers: 1 January to 6 August, 1787 - Page 598

"Dutch Blankets 6/4 wide— 15. in a piece"
Papers: Mar. to 7 Oct. 1788 - Page 393

In case there was any doubt as to whether or not all Dutch blankets were identical, the following advertisement from the Virginia Gazette helps muddy the waters.

"Dutch Blankets of all Sorts" Virginia Gazette, August 22, 1771

Expanding the search through the mid 19th century adds a few more clues:

 The Kentucky Gazette, 17 June 1797

Ten Dollars Reward. Ran away from the subscriber, on the 13th instant, SAM, a likely Negro man, five feet ten or eleven inches high, rather slim, but straight and well made, with long hollow feet, of a dark complexion, about twenty two years old, he took with him a blue
cloth coat, a short country fulled lead coloured ditto, a thin home made ditto, a pair of black breeches, a black half worn wool hat, and a twilled Dutch blanket, with sundry other clothing. I will give the above reward for said Negro if delivered to me, in Fayette county, on Steele _____, or Five Dollars if secured in any jail so that I get him. MOSES HICKS.

Thomas Jefferson  again equates them with striped blankets on December 27, 1812
"Dutch or striped blankets..."

Britische Waaren-Encyklopädie/British War encyclopedia
Hamburg in der Nemnichschen Buchhandlung/London bey Thomas Boosey

"Unter Dutch Blankets, verstehen die Englander die Scharzen, oder wollener Decken, die in der Nahe von Solingen in Grosser Menge verfertigt werden."

"Under Dutch Blankets, the English understand the Scharzen, or woolen blankets, which are made in the vicinity of Solingen in large quantities."


The archaic textile term Scharzen is defined in the 1809 publication Tagebuch einer der Cultur und Industrie gewidmeten Reise (Diary of a journey dedicated to culture and industry). p450

"Here, in ancient times, a fabric whose chain was linen and the weft was cowhair, under the name of Scharzen, was made. In recent times, this article has gone into woolen bedspreads, which one calls outright and sometimes wrongly Scharzen now and then..."

By 1839 we have the Comprehensive Lexicon of merchandise knowledge in all its chapters" [ thanks to Gottfried P. for the translation help!]

Vollständiges Lexikon der Warenkunde in allen ihren Zweigen AD. 1839

"Dutch Blankets-Are white, woolen, both sides twilled blankets with colorful stripes at the edges and colorful flowers at the corners, 4 ½ to  6 feet long, 4 feet wide, which mostly are shipped to America...Rose Blankets, white, woolen, un-twilled, of various sizes with worked-into flowers or figurines in colorful wool on the corners, are from Kilkenny and other production centers of Ireland..."

Multi colored striped Dutch Blankets ca. 1566-1794

Blanket Fragment from Burr's Hill in Rhode Island

In addition to the above sometimes confusing notes from the historical record, we have surviving fragments of a striped twilled blanket from a Native burial site named Burr's hill in Rhode Island. The Burr's hill site roughly dates from the mid to latter end of 17th century, "The earliest European trade objects in the Burr's Hill collection date from the early seventeenth century or possibly even the late sixteenth century..." and on the other end "some of the glass beads are of types dating as late as 1710-1745." A Queen Anne era "AR" stamped stoneware mug on page 57 indicates a production date range for that object of 1705-1714. Fragments of these blankets can be seen in black and white in the Burr's Hill dig report and are also shown in color in Montgomery's excellent Textiles in America. As stated in the Burr's Hill dig report on page 102 "Blankets of this type were woven in the seventeenth century in both Holland and England..."and  "...[fig. 94 caption] Wool blanket fragment, probably of Dutch or English manufacture."


 A Woman at her Toilet by Jan Steen, ca. 1665

Grocer's shop by Frans van Mieris 1715


Similar blankets can be seen in numerous 17th and 18th century paintings by the French Le Nain Brothers, Jan Steen and etc., although one of my favorites is the dock scene at the top of the page (by Dutch painter Abraham Jansz Begeyn c1662)- these twill woven, striped blankets from Holland are likely what Americans would eventually call "Dutch" blankets. In addition to the visual evidence, there are correlating 18th century quotes mentioning multiple colored striped blankets from Pennsylvania. A 1714 letter from James Logan to Edward Hackett describes similar blankets in the Indian trade " ...3rdly. Striped Blankets that are white like other Blankets only towards the ends they have generally four broad Stripes as each 2 red and 2 blue or black ... they are sold by ye piece containing 15 blankets for about 3 lbs 10/." (See Montgomery's Textiles...  James Logan Papers in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania,  Logan's letter book, 1712-15)." Forty five years later, a "new Blanket, with red and blue Stripes on the Sides..." was listed as stolen in the Pennsylvania Gazette in 1759 (see image below).

Pennsylvania Gazette- April 12, 1759 ad mentioning a new red and blue striped blanket.


Above are a couple reproduction "Burr's Hill" blanket variations based on period images and the extant fragments (The three color blanket at right is by Robert Stone hand weaver NB: Mr. Stone does not agree with my hypothesis, and produces a fine product at a fair price).

Odds and Dead Ends

The multi-colored stripe motif seems to have persisted in blankets of unknown or non Dutch origin for some time. Below is an image of a Cherokee ca. 1820 (interestingly enough the same artist depicted a Seneca woman in a point blanket, was this possibly a regional preference?) and a Witney blanket scrap woven in the 1860s.

Single color striped Dutch Blankets 1656-1825

In addition to multi-colored stripe decorations, some "Dutch" blankets may have been made with a single color (red seems to predominate in what I have found so far) stripe pattern, and both styles seem to have existed contemporaneously,  Esaias Borse and Frans van Mieris the Younger depicted both styles about 75 years apart from each other.

The Tennessee Gazette And Mero-District Advertiser; January 31st, 1807
Lost or Stolen...A New Saddle, with plated piece of metal over the pummel and Cantel.  It had no saddle cloth except a Dutch blanket with red stripes, fastened to the Saddle together with a Valise pad attached thereto..." 

The three wool blankets shown below are  from the Nederlands Openluchtmuseum collection. The top two were donated together, and are described in Onder de dekens, tussen de lakens by A. Meulenbelt-Nieuwburg as "dated at the end of the 18th, beginning of the 19th century". The top two are both center seamed, and feature a three color printed cotton edge binding with a floral motif and brown ground instead of the red woolen thread blanket stitch typically used in England and America. The brown striped blanket has an odd ribbed plain weave that is very similar to excavated 16th century textile fragments from Amsterdams Historisch Museum (see Onder de dekens... page 50).

Late 18th/early 19th c blanket from Drenthe. Foto Nederlands Openluchtmuseum

Late 18th/early 19th c blanket from Drenthe. Foto Nederlands Openluchtmuseum  

19th c blanket from Drenthe. Foto Nederlands Openluchtmuseum



Gem Museum the Hague from Het Hollandse pronkpoppenhuis 



Hopefully more information on this once commonplace item will come to light. I am indebted to the assistance of many others with this topic, especially Mike G., Steve R., Matt N.,  Robt S. and Tom A., who have shared a wealth of great info and leads on this front- thanks guys!